Feral horse damage to a small stream (Photo: Nick Clemann)
Hot Topic

The ecological, ethical and economic evidence for removing feral horses from Australia’s alpine environments

Thursday, 2 July 2020  | 

Authors: Dr Ayesha Tulloch (University of Sydney) and A/Prof Euan Ritchie (Deakin University). Contact: ayesha.tulloch@sydney.edu.au

Feral horses (Equus caballus) are hard-hooved, introduced herbivores originating primarily from farms but now occurring across mainland Australia. Damage by horses is recognised as a threatening process in NSW and Victoria due to its impact on native species and ecosystems.

Feral horse impacts are best understood in Australia’s alpine ecosystems where there are ~25,000 horses, increasing at ~20% per year. They cause environmental degradation, even at low numbers. They overgraze endangered plant communities, affect alpine plant and animal abundance and diversity; spread invasive plants; erode soil; and increase sediment in waterways.

Feral horse trampling reduces the organic layer of soils, increases soil compaction and run-off, and reduces water infiltration and nutrient recycling. Frequent visits to water sources create compacted paths that damage vegetation and reduces streambank stability. Horse paths create channels that drain peatland communities, causing peatlands to dry, degrade, and release carbon into the atmosphere.

By degrading ecological communities, horse activity may increase the extinction risk of threatened species, including Alpine Water Skinks, Northern Corroboree Frogs, Mountain Pygmy Possums, Stocky Galaxias, Guthega Skinks, and 23 plant species in NSW. Feral horses can eliminate Broad-toothed Rat populations when impacts are severe, and when combined with deer, can halve invertebrate numbers. Experimental exclusion of feral horses increases the soil organic layer leaf litter and reduces erosion, and exclusion of horses and deer increases native vegetation richness, cover, and biomass, and reduces weeds.

Management of feral horses is necessary to address negative ecological impacts. Aerial culling is the most cost-effective and humane method for managing feral horses. Mustering and rehoming is more expensive and delivers poorer horse welfare outcomes. Fertility control is ineffective because the populations are too large, are often in regions very difficult to access, and are open to immigration.

The evidence shows that maintaining feral horse populations is inconsistent with biodiversity conservation.

A downloadable pdf on this Hot Topic can be found here.

Supporting Research

Title
Aims
Allan H. and Lintermans M. (2018) The threat from feral horses to a critically endangered fish. In : Feral Horse Impacts: The Kosciuszko Science Conference (eds G. L. Worboys, D. A. Driscoll and P. Crabb) pp. 88–89. Australian Academy of Science; The Australian National University; Fenner School of Environment and Society; and Deakin University, Canberra.
To summarize the possible impacts of feral horses on the single known population of the nationally endangered Stocky Galaxias in Kosciuszko National Park
Bates, H., 2018. Indirect impacts of the feral horse on the mountain pygmy-possum. In:Worboys, G.L., Driscoll, D., Crabb, P. (Eds.), Feral Horse Impacts: The KosciuszkoScience Conference – Conference Abstracts. 2018. Australian Academy of Science,The Australian National University and Deakin University Canberra, pp. p76–p78.
To summarize the possible impacts of feral horses on two populations of the nationally endangered Mountain Pygmy-possum (Burramys parvus) in Kosciuszko National Park
Beeton, N. J., & Johnson, C. N. (2019). Modelling horse management in the Australian Alps. Ecological management & restoration, 20(1), 57-62.
Used a spatially explicit population model to compare the potential effects of two different management strategies on populations of horses in the Australian Alps bioregion: culling from helicopters versus trapping and mustering
Cairns, S. (2019). Feral Horses in the Australian Alps: the Analysis of Aerial Surveys Conducted in April-May, 2014 and April-May 2019.
To conduct a repeat aerial survey of feral horses to evaluate change over time since 2014
Cherubin, R. C., Venn, S. E., Driscoll, D. A., Doherty, T. S., & Ritchie, E. G. (2019). Feral horse impacts on threatened plants and animals in sub?alpine and montane environments in Victoria, Australia. Ecological management & restoration, 20(1), 47-56.
To quantify the effects of feral horses on Sphagnum bogcommunities and two associated threatenedanimal species (Alpine water skink and broad-toothed rat).
de Bie K. and Vesk P. A. (2014) Ecological indicators for assessing management effectiveness: a case study of horse riding in an Alpine National Park. Ecological Management and Restoration 15, 215–221.
To determine the efficacy of ecological indicators as performance measures in assessing the effectiveness of a management strategy implemented to minimize the impact of horse riding on a valuable and sensitive alpine vegetation community in a National Park.'
Driscoll, D.A., Worboys, G.L., Allan, H., Banks, S.C., Beeton, N.J., Cherubin, R.C., Doherty, T.S., Finlayson, C.M., Green, K., Hartley, R., Hope, G., Johnson, C.N., Lintermans, M., Mackey, B., Paull, D.J., Pittock, J., Porfirio, L.L., Ritchie, E.G., Sato, C.F., Scheele, B.C., Slattery, D.A., Venn, S., Watson, D., Watson, M. and Williams, R.M. (2019), Impacts of feral horses in the Australian Alps and evidence?based solutions. Ecol Manag Restor, 20: 63-72. doi:10.1111/emr.12357
To summarize research addressing the impacts of feral horses on Alpine National Park in Victoria, Kosciuszko National Park in NSW and Namadgi National Park in the Australian Capital Territory, and to examine the case for aerial culling, including evaluating the ethical and social context
Eldridge, D. J., Ding, J., & Travers, S. K. (2020). Feral horse activity reduces environmental quality in ecosystems globally. Biological Conservation, 241, 108367.
Combined a structured, qualitative search of global literature with a quantitative meta-analysis to explore the net effects of feral horses on ecosystems worldwide. Retrieved 4261 observations from 78 publications that reported quantitative data on the effects of feral horses on 64 ecosystem response variables such as plant community composition and cover; soil chemistry and soil stability, that together give us a measure of environmental quality.
Eldridge, D. J., Travers, S. K., Val, J., Zaja, A., & Veblen, K. E. (2019). Horse activity is associated with degraded subalpine grassland structure and reduced habitat for a threatened rodent. Rangeland ecology & management, 72(3), 467-473.
To examine the the direct and indirect impacts of horses, kangaroos, and rabbits on the threatened broad-toothed rat (Mastacomys fuscus), by investigating the relationship between the activity of different herbivores and 1) structural attributes of the vegetation (cover and density of different plant groups) and 2) length of broad-toothed rat runways and the presence of scat along these runways as proxies of broad-toothed rat activity.
Foster, C. N., & Scheele, B. C. (2019). Feral-horse impacts on corroboree frog habitat in the Australian Alps. Wildlife Research, 46(2), 184-190.
Used replicated horse exclosures to investigate the effects of feral horses on breeding habitat of the critically endangered northern corroboree frog, Pseudophryne pengilleyi
Good, R., & Johnston, S. (2019). Rehabilitation and revegetation of the Kosciuszko summit area, following the removal of grazing–An historic review. Ecological management & restoration, 20(1), 13-20.
Historical account of the rehabilitation and revegetation of the Kosciuszkosummit following the cessation of grazing
Hobbs R. J. and Hinds L. A. (2018) Could current fertility control methods be effective for landscape?scale management of populations of wild horses (Equus caballus) in Australia? Wildlife Research 45, 195–207.
to evaluate currently available non-lethal fertility-control methods that have been tested for their contraceptive efficacy in Equidae, and to assess their suitability for effective management of wild (feral) horses in an Australian setting.'
Hope G. (2018) Feral horse damage to soft terrain: bogs and fens in the Snowy Mountains. In : Feral Horse Impacts: The Kosciuszko Science Conference (eds G. L. Worboys, D. A. Driscoll and P. Crabb) pp. 54– 56. Australian Academy of Science; The Australian National University; Fenner School of Environment and Society; and Deakin University, Canberra.
To summarize the possible impacts of feral horses on high country bogs and fens in Kosciuszko National Park
Nimmo, D.G., & Miller, K.K. (2007) Ecological and human dimensions of management of feral horses in Australia: a review. Wildlife Research 34(5) 408–417
To review evidence of the ecological impacts of feral horses on non-native ecosystems, with a focus on Australian ecosystems
Porfirio, L. L., Lefroy, T., Hugh, S., & Mackey, B. (2017). Monitoring the impact of feral horses on vegetation condition using remotely sensed fPAR: A case study in Australia's Alpine Parks. Parks, 27.
To compare field and remotely-sensed satellite assessments of vegetation condition in sites where feral horses were present and absent, in conjunction with field-based observations of horse presence and absence.
Prober, S. M. & Thiele, K. R. (2007). Assessment of Impacts of Feral Horses (Equus caballus) in the Australian Alps: An experimental monitoring program in the Cobberas-Tingaringy Unit of the Alpine National Park: Progress 1999 to 2005. Unpublished report to Parks Victoria.
To monitor the effects of exclosure from feral horses on floristic composition and structure of favoured grazing areas (grasslands), and on bank condition and disturbance of streams draining these areas.
Robertson, G., Wright, J., Brown, D., Yuen, K. and Tongway, D. (2019), An assessment of feral horse impacts on treeless drainage lines in the Australian Alps. Ecol Manag Restor, 20: 21-30. doi:10.1111/emr.12359
Compares indicators of soil and streambank stability and vegetation cover of treeless drainage lines in sites with no sign of horse presence and sites that do show evidence of horse presence (observations of horses, horse dung, hoof prints or trails).
Schulz, M., Schroder, M., & Green, K. (2019). The occurrence of the Broad?toothed Rat Mastacomys fuscus in relation to feral Horse impacts. Ecological management & restoration, 20(1), 31-36.
Surveyed 180 sites supporting preferred habitat for the nationally threatened Broad-toothed Rat (Mastacomys fuscus) to determine presence and relative abundance in relation to the level of feral horse impacts
Ward-Jones, J., Pulsford, I., Thackway, R., Bishwokarma, D., & Freudenberger, D. (2019). Impacts of feral horses and deer on an endangered woodland of Kosciuszko National Park. Ecological management & restoration, 20(1), 37-46.
Surveyed fenced exclosures and paired grazed plots that were first established and surveyed in 1984 and re-surveyed in 1987, to investigate the severity of the impacts of feral horse (Equus caballus) and deer (Dama dama and Rusa unicolor) in 2013 and 2017/18.
Williams, P. R. J. (2019). Science as an antidote to horse trading in the Australian Alps. Ecological Management & Restoration, 20(1), 4-6.
Review scientific basis for reducing feral horse numbers in Australian Alps by examining grazing impacts on natural values and feral horse ecology
Tolsma A. D. & Shannon J. (2018) Assessing the Impacts of Feral Horses on the Bogong High Plains, Victoria. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research. Unpublished client report for Parks Victoria, Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Heidelberg, Victoria.
This project aimed to visit a range of locations across the Bogong High Plains to document the nature and extent of feral horse impacts, and as far as possible, how these impacts have changed over the last decade.
Allan H. and Lintermans M. (2018) The threat from feral horses to a critically endangered fish. In : Feral Horse Impacts: The Kosciuszko Science Conference (eds G. L. Worboys, D. A. Driscoll and P. Crabb) pp. 88–89. Australian Academy of Science; The Australian National University; Fenner School of Environment and Society; and Deakin University, Canberra.
To summarize the possible impacts of feral horses on the single known population of the nationally endangered Stocky Galaxias in Kosciuszko National Park
Bates, H., 2018. Indirect impacts of the feral horse on the mountain pygmy-possum. In:Worboys, G.L., Driscoll, D., Crabb, P. (Eds.), Feral Horse Impacts: The KosciuszkoScience Conference – Conference Abstracts. 2018. Australian Academy of Science,The Australian National University and Deakin University Canberra, pp. p76–p78.
To summarize the possible impacts of feral horses on two populations of the nationally endangered Mountain Pygmy-possum (Burramys parvus) in Kosciuszko National Park
Driscoll, D.A., Worboys, G.L., Allan, H., Banks, S.C., Beeton, N.J., Cherubin, R.C., Doherty, T.S., Finlayson, C.M., Green, K., Hartley, R., Hope, G., Johnson, C.N., Lintermans, M., Mackey, B., Paull, D.J., Pittock, J., Porfirio, L.L., Ritchie, E.G., Sato, C.F., Scheele, B.C., Slattery, D.A., Venn, S., Watson, D., Watson, M. and Williams, R.M. (2019), Impacts of feral horses in the Australian Alps and evidence?based solutions. Ecol Manag Restor, 20: 63-72. doi:10.1111/emr.12357
To summarize research addressing the impacts of feral horses on Alpine National Park in Victoria, Kosciuszko National Park in NSW and Namadgi National Park in the Australian Capital Territory, and to examine the case for aerial culling, including evaluating the ethical and social context
Hope G. (2018) Feral horse damage to soft terrain: bogs and fens in the Snowy Mountains. In : Feral Horse Impacts: The Kosciuszko Science Conference (eds G. L. Worboys, D. A. Driscoll and P. Crabb) pp. 54– 56. Australian Academy of Science; The Australian National University; Fenner School of Environment and Society; and Deakin University, Canberra.
To summarize the possible impacts of feral horses on high country bogs and fens in Kosciuszko National Park
Prober, S. M. & Thiele, K. R. (2007). Assessment of Impacts of Feral Horses (Equus caballus) in the Australian Alps: An experimental monitoring program in the Cobberas-Tingaringy Unit of the Alpine National Park: Progress 1999 to 2005. Unpublished report to Parks Victoria.
To monitor the effects of exclosure from feral horses on floristic composition and structure of favoured grazing areas (grasslands), and on bank condition and disturbance of streams draining these areas.
Tolsma A. D. & Shannon J. (2018) Assessing the Impacts of Feral Horses on the Bogong High Plains, Victoria. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research. Unpublished client report for Parks Victoria, Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Heidelberg, Victoria.
This project aimed to visit a range of locations across the Bogong High Plains to document the nature and extent of feral horse impacts, and as far as possible, how these impacts have changed over the last decade.
Allan H. and Lintermans M. (2018) The threat from feral horses to a critically endangered fish. In : Feral Horse Impacts: The Kosciuszko Science Conference (eds G. L. Worboys, D. A. Driscoll and P. Crabb) pp. 88–89. Australian Academy of Science; The Australian National University; Fenner School of Environment and Society; and Deakin University, Canberra.
To summarize the possible impacts of feral horses on the single known population of the nationally endangered Stocky Galaxias in Kosciuszko National Park
Bates, H., 2018. Indirect impacts of the feral horse on the mountain pygmy-possum. In:Worboys, G.L., Driscoll, D., Crabb, P. (Eds.), Feral Horse Impacts: The KosciuszkoScience Conference – Conference Abstracts. 2018. Australian Academy of Science,The Australian National University and Deakin University Canberra, pp. p76–p78.
To summarize the possible impacts of feral horses on two populations of the nationally endangered Mountain Pygmy-possum (Burramys parvus) in Kosciuszko National Park
Driscoll, D.A., Worboys, G.L., Allan, H., Banks, S.C., Beeton, N.J., Cherubin, R.C., Doherty, T.S., Finlayson, C.M., Green, K., Hartley, R., Hope, G., Johnson, C.N., Lintermans, M., Mackey, B., Paull, D.J., Pittock, J., Porfirio, L.L., Ritchie, E.G., Sato, C.F., Scheele, B.C., Slattery, D.A., Venn, S., Watson, D., Watson, M. and Williams, R.M. (2019), Impacts of feral horses in the Australian Alps and evidence?based solutions. Ecol Manag Restor, 20: 63-72. doi:10.1111/emr.12357
To summarize research addressing the impacts of feral horses on Alpine National Park in Victoria, Kosciuszko National Park in NSW and Namadgi National Park in the Australian Capital Territory, and to examine the case for aerial culling, including evaluating the ethical and social context
Hope G. (2018) Feral horse damage to soft terrain: bogs and fens in the Snowy Mountains. In : Feral Horse Impacts: The Kosciuszko Science Conference (eds G. L. Worboys, D. A. Driscoll and P. Crabb) pp. 54– 56. Australian Academy of Science; The Australian National University; Fenner School of Environment and Society; and Deakin University, Canberra.
To summarize the possible impacts of feral horses on high country bogs and fens in Kosciuszko National Park
Prober, S. M. & Thiele, K. R. (2007). Assessment of Impacts of Feral Horses (Equus caballus) in the Australian Alps: An experimental monitoring program in the Cobberas-Tingaringy Unit of the Alpine National Park: Progress 1999 to 2005. Unpublished report to Parks Victoria.
To monitor the effects of exclosure from feral horses on floristic composition and structure of favoured grazing areas (grasslands), and on bank condition and disturbance of streams draining these areas.
Tolsma A. D. & Shannon J. (2018) Assessing the Impacts of Feral Horses on the Bogong High Plains, Victoria. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research. Unpublished client report for Parks Victoria, Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Heidelberg, Victoria.
This project aimed to visit a range of locations across the Bogong High Plains to document the nature and extent of feral horse impacts, and as far as possible, how these impacts have changed over the last decade.
Allan H. and Lintermans M. (2018) The threat from feral horses to a critically endangered fish. In : Feral Horse Impacts: The Kosciuszko Science Conference (eds G. L. Worboys, D. A. Driscoll and P. Crabb) pp. 88–89. Australian Academy of Science; The Australian National University; Fenner School of Environment and Society; and Deakin University, Canberra.
To summarize the possible impacts of feral horses on the single known population of the nationally endangered Stocky Galaxias in Kosciuszko National Park
Bates, H., 2018. Indirect impacts of the feral horse on the mountain pygmy-possum. In:Worboys, G.L., Driscoll, D., Crabb, P. (Eds.), Feral Horse Impacts: The KosciuszkoScience Conference – Conference Abstracts. 2018. Australian Academy of Science,The Australian National University and Deakin University Canberra, pp. p76–p78.
To summarize the possible impacts of feral horses on two populations of the nationally endangered Mountain Pygmy-possum (Burramys parvus) in Kosciuszko National Park
Driscoll, D.A., Worboys, G.L., Allan, H., Banks, S.C., Beeton, N.J., Cherubin, R.C., Doherty, T.S., Finlayson, C.M., Green, K., Hartley, R., Hope, G., Johnson, C.N., Lintermans, M., Mackey, B., Paull, D.J., Pittock, J., Porfirio, L.L., Ritchie, E.G., Sato, C.F., Scheele, B.C., Slattery, D.A., Venn, S., Watson, D., Watson, M. and Williams, R.M. (2019), Impacts of feral horses in the Australian Alps and evidence?based solutions. Ecol Manag Restor, 20: 63-72. doi:10.1111/emr.12357
To summarize research addressing the impacts of feral horses on Alpine National Park in Victoria, Kosciuszko National Park in NSW and Namadgi National Park in the Australian Capital Territory, and to examine the case for aerial culling, including evaluating the ethical and social context
Hope G. (2018) Feral horse damage to soft terrain: bogs and fens in the Snowy Mountains. In : Feral Horse Impacts: The Kosciuszko Science Conference (eds G. L. Worboys, D. A. Driscoll and P. Crabb) pp. 54– 56. Australian Academy of Science; The Australian National University; Fenner School of Environment and Society; and Deakin University, Canberra.
To summarize the possible impacts of feral horses on high country bogs and fens in Kosciuszko National Park
Prober, S. M. & Thiele, K. R. (2007). Assessment of Impacts of Feral Horses (Equus caballus) in the Australian Alps: An experimental monitoring program in the Cobberas-Tingaringy Unit of the Alpine National Park: Progress 1999 to 2005. Unpublished report to Parks Victoria.
To monitor the effects of exclosure from feral horses on floristic composition and structure of favoured grazing areas (grasslands), and on bank condition and disturbance of streams draining these areas.
Tolsma A. D. & Shannon J. (2018) Assessing the Impacts of Feral Horses on the Bogong High Plains, Victoria. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research. Unpublished client report for Parks Victoria, Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Heidelberg, Victoria.
This project aimed to visit a range of locations across the Bogong High Plains to document the nature and extent of feral horse impacts, and as far as possible, how these impacts have changed over the last decade.
Allan H. and Lintermans M. (2018) The threat from feral horses to a critically endangered fish. In : Feral Horse Impacts: The Kosciuszko Science Conference (eds G. L. Worboys, D. A. Driscoll and P. Crabb) pp. 88–89. Australian Academy of Science; The Australian National University; Fenner School of Environment and Society; and Deakin University, Canberra.
To summarize the possible impacts of feral horses on the single known population of the nationally endangered Stocky Galaxias in Kosciuszko National Park
Bates, H., 2018. Indirect impacts of the feral horse on the mountain pygmy-possum. In:Worboys, G.L., Driscoll, D., Crabb, P. (Eds.), Feral Horse Impacts: The KosciuszkoScience Conference – Conference Abstracts. 2018. Australian Academy of Science,The Australian National University and Deakin University Canberra, pp. p76–p78.
To summarize the possible impacts of feral horses on two populations of the nationally endangered Mountain Pygmy-possum (Burramys parvus) in Kosciuszko National Park
Driscoll, D.A., Worboys, G.L., Allan, H., Banks, S.C., Beeton, N.J., Cherubin, R.C., Doherty, T.S., Finlayson, C.M., Green, K., Hartley, R., Hope, G., Johnson, C.N., Lintermans, M., Mackey, B., Paull, D.J., Pittock, J., Porfirio, L.L., Ritchie, E.G., Sato, C.F., Scheele, B.C., Slattery, D.A., Venn, S., Watson, D., Watson, M. and Williams, R.M. (2019), Impacts of feral horses in the Australian Alps and evidence?based solutions. Ecol Manag Restor, 20: 63-72. doi:10.1111/emr.12357
To summarize research addressing the impacts of feral horses on Alpine National Park in Victoria, Kosciuszko National Park in NSW and Namadgi National Park in the Australian Capital Territory, and to examine the case for aerial culling, including evaluating the ethical and social context
Hope G. (2018) Feral horse damage to soft terrain: bogs and fens in the Snowy Mountains. In : Feral Horse Impacts: The Kosciuszko Science Conference (eds G. L. Worboys, D. A. Driscoll and P. Crabb) pp. 54– 56. Australian Academy of Science; The Australian National University; Fenner School of Environment and Society; and Deakin University, Canberra.
To summarize the possible impacts of feral horses on high country bogs and fens in Kosciuszko National Park
Prober, S. M. & Thiele, K. R. (2007). Assessment of Impacts of Feral Horses (Equus caballus) in the Australian Alps: An experimental monitoring program in the Cobberas-Tingaringy Unit of the Alpine National Park: Progress 1999 to 2005. Unpublished report to Parks Victoria.
To monitor the effects of exclosure from feral horses on floristic composition and structure of favoured grazing areas (grasslands), and on bank condition and disturbance of streams draining these areas.
Tolsma A. D. & Shannon J. (2018) Assessing the Impacts of Feral Horses on the Bogong High Plains, Victoria. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research. Unpublished client report for Parks Victoria, Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Heidelberg, Victoria.
This project aimed to visit a range of locations across the Bogong High Plains to document the nature and extent of feral horse impacts, and as far as possible, how these impacts have changed over the last decade.
Allan H. and Lintermans M. (2018) The threat from feral horses to a critically endangered fish. In : Feral Horse Impacts: The Kosciuszko Science Conference (eds G. L. Worboys, D. A. Driscoll and P. Crabb) pp. 88–89. Australian Academy of Science; The Australian National University; Fenner School of Environment and Society; and Deakin University, Canberra.
To summarize the possible impacts of feral horses on the single known population of the nationally endangered Stocky Galaxias in Kosciuszko National Park
Bates, H., 2018. Indirect impacts of the feral horse on the mountain pygmy-possum. In:Worboys, G.L., Driscoll, D., Crabb, P. (Eds.), Feral Horse Impacts: The KosciuszkoScience Conference – Conference Abstracts. 2018. Australian Academy of Science,The Australian National University and Deakin University Canberra, pp. p76–p78.
To summarize the possible impacts of feral horses on two populations of the nationally endangered Mountain Pygmy-possum (Burramys parvus) in Kosciuszko National Park
Driscoll, D.A., Worboys, G.L., Allan, H., Banks, S.C., Beeton, N.J., Cherubin, R.C., Doherty, T.S., Finlayson, C.M., Green, K., Hartley, R., Hope, G., Johnson, C.N., Lintermans, M., Mackey, B., Paull, D.J., Pittock, J., Porfirio, L.L., Ritchie, E.G., Sato, C.F., Scheele, B.C., Slattery, D.A., Venn, S., Watson, D., Watson, M. and Williams, R.M. (2019), Impacts of feral horses in the Australian Alps and evidence?based solutions. Ecol Manag Restor, 20: 63-72. doi:10.1111/emr.12357
To summarize research addressing the impacts of feral horses on Alpine National Park in Victoria, Kosciuszko National Park in NSW and Namadgi National Park in the Australian Capital Territory, and to examine the case for aerial culling, including evaluating the ethical and social context
Hope G. (2018) Feral horse damage to soft terrain: bogs and fens in the Snowy Mountains. In : Feral Horse Impacts: The Kosciuszko Science Conference (eds G. L. Worboys, D. A. Driscoll and P. Crabb) pp. 54– 56. Australian Academy of Science; The Australian National University; Fenner School of Environment and Society; and Deakin University, Canberra.
To summarize the possible impacts of feral horses on high country bogs and fens in Kosciuszko National Park
Prober, S. M. & Thiele, K. R. (2007). Assessment of Impacts of Feral Horses (Equus caballus) in the Australian Alps: An experimental monitoring program in the Cobberas-Tingaringy Unit of the Alpine National Park: Progress 1999 to 2005. Unpublished report to Parks Victoria.
To monitor the effects of exclosure from feral horses on floristic composition and structure of favoured grazing areas (grasslands), and on bank condition and disturbance of streams draining these areas.
Tolsma A. D. & Shannon J. (2018) Assessing the Impacts of Feral Horses on the Bogong High Plains, Victoria. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research. Unpublished client report for Parks Victoria, Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Heidelberg, Victoria.
This project aimed to visit a range of locations across the Bogong High Plains to document the nature and extent of feral horse impacts, and as far as possible, how these impacts have changed over the last decade.
Allan H. and Lintermans M. (2018) The threat from feral horses to a critically endangered fish. In : Feral Horse Impacts: The Kosciuszko Science Conference (eds G. L. Worboys, D. A. Driscoll and P. Crabb) pp. 88–89. Australian Academy of Science; The Australian National University; Fenner School of Environment and Society; and Deakin University, Canberra.
To summarize the possible impacts of feral horses on the single known population of the nationally endangered Stocky Galaxias in Kosciuszko National Park
Bates, H., 2018. Indirect impacts of the feral horse on the mountain pygmy-possum. In:Worboys, G.L., Driscoll, D., Crabb, P. (Eds.), Feral Horse Impacts: The KosciuszkoScience Conference – Conference Abstracts. 2018. Australian Academy of Science,The Australian National University and Deakin University Canberra, pp. p76–p78.
To summarize the possible impacts of feral horses on two populations of the nationally endangered Mountain Pygmy-possum (Burramys parvus) in Kosciuszko National Park
Driscoll, D.A., Worboys, G.L., Allan, H., Banks, S.C., Beeton, N.J., Cherubin, R.C., Doherty, T.S., Finlayson, C.M., Green, K., Hartley, R., Hope, G., Johnson, C.N., Lintermans, M., Mackey, B., Paull, D.J., Pittock, J., Porfirio, L.L., Ritchie, E.G., Sato, C.F., Scheele, B.C., Slattery, D.A., Venn, S., Watson, D., Watson, M. and Williams, R.M. (2019), Impacts of feral horses in the Australian Alps and evidence?based solutions. Ecol Manag Restor, 20: 63-72. doi:10.1111/emr.12357
To summarize research addressing the impacts of feral horses on Alpine National Park in Victoria, Kosciuszko National Park in NSW and Namadgi National Park in the Australian Capital Territory, and to examine the case for aerial culling, including evaluating the ethical and social context
Hope G. (2018) Feral horse damage to soft terrain: bogs and fens in the Snowy Mountains. In : Feral Horse Impacts: The Kosciuszko Science Conference (eds G. L. Worboys, D. A. Driscoll and P. Crabb) pp. 54– 56. Australian Academy of Science; The Australian National University; Fenner School of Environment and Society; and Deakin University, Canberra.
To summarize the possible impacts of feral horses on high country bogs and fens in Kosciuszko National Park
Prober, S. M. & Thiele, K. R. (2007). Assessment of Impacts of Feral Horses (Equus caballus) in the Australian Alps: An experimental monitoring program in the Cobberas-Tingaringy Unit of the Alpine National Park: Progress 1999 to 2005. Unpublished report to Parks Victoria.
To monitor the effects of exclosure from feral horses on floristic composition and structure of favoured grazing areas (grasslands), and on bank condition and disturbance of streams draining these areas.
Tolsma A. D. & Shannon J. (2018) Assessing the Impacts of Feral Horses on the Bogong High Plains, Victoria. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research. Unpublished client report for Parks Victoria, Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Heidelberg, Victoria.
This project aimed to visit a range of locations across the Bogong High Plains to document the nature and extent of feral horse impacts, and as far as possible, how these impacts have changed over the last decade.