Clarify the processes of range contraction and extension; identify and describe different stages of each
Type of Study:
Range extensions occur as a sequence of (1) arrival, (2) population increase, and (3) persistence. By contrast, range contractions occur progressively as (1) performance decline, (2) population decrease and (3) local extinction.
Discusses different sampling approaches and analytical frameworks
Generic context, Australian examples
Response variable :
Marine examples but most concepts are generic
Bates A. E., Pecl G. T., Frusher S., Hobday A. J., Wernberg T., Smale D. A., Sunday J. M., Hill N. A., Dulvy N. K., Colwell R. K., Holbrook N. J., Fulton E. A., Slawinski D., Feng M., Edgar G. J., Radford B. T., Thompson P. A. & Watson R. A. (2014) Defining and observing stages of climate-mediated range shifts in marine systems. Global Environ Change 26, 27-38.