Raiter K. G., Possingham H. P., Prober S. M. & Hobbs R. J. (2014) Under the radar: mitigating enigmatic ecological impacts. Trends Ecol Evol 29, 635-44.

Raiter K. G., Possingham H. P., Prober S. M. & Hobbs R. J. (2014) Under the radar: mitigating enigmatic ecological impacts. Trends Ecol Evol 29, 635-44.

Aim: 
To provide a framework for conceptualising ‘enigmatic’ ecological impacts: impacts that are easily and often overlooked in conventional impact evaluations.
Type of Study: 
Review paper.
Key Results: 
Four categories of enigmatic impacts: framework identifies four categories of impact that are often overlooked or inadequately addressed in impact evaluations: (i) cumulative; (ii) offsite; (iii) cryptic; and (iv) secondary impacts. Interactions between multiple impacts may also be overlooked.
Response: 
Adherence to the mitigation hierarchy; strategic and large-scale evaluation and planning; manage, concentrate, and protect; conserve wilderness or intactness; address historical impacts and mitigate co-occurring impacts; manage access; enhance evaluation; improve ethical and professional scientific practice; integrated use of available knowledge, precautions, decision-support tools, and projections; research to establish baselines and early warning indicators; address the triple bottom line; public participation; shift risks from society to the marketplace.
Reviewer: 
Keren Raiter
Locations: 
Global
Response variable : 
Ecological impacts of development
Ecosystem: 
Largely terrestrial
Survey: 
Global
Full Reference: 
Raiter K. G., Possingham H. P., Prober S. M. & Hobbs R. J. (2014) Under the radar: mitigating enigmatic ecological impacts. Trends Ecol Evol 29, 635-44.