Raiter K. G., Prober S. M., Hobbs R. J. & Possingham H. P. (2017) Lines in the sand: quantifying the cumulative development footprint in the world’s largest remaining temperate woodland. Landscape Ecology 32, 1969-1986.

Raiter K. G., Prober S. M., Hobbs R. J. & Possingham H. P. (2017) Lines in the sand: quantifying the cumulative development footprint in the world’s largest remaining temperate woodland. Landscape Ecology 32, 1969-1986.

Aim: 
To explore the extent and nature of ecological impacts associated with human developments, assess the proportion of the development footprint that comprises linear infrastructure, and the proportion of this that is unmapped. Also to investigate the potential drivers of development extent (e.g. mining activity, pastoral grazing) and other associated landscape factors, and quantify linear infrastructure densities and edge effect zones under various scenarios.
Type of Study: 
Natural experiment/spatial investigation and analysis
Key Results: 
Unmapped linear infrastructure, only detectable through manual digitisation, accounts for the greatest proportion of the direct development footprint. Across the 160,000 km2 GWW, the estimated development footprint is 690 km2, of which 67% consists of linear infrastructure and the remainder is ‘hub’ infrastructure. An estimated 150,000 km of linear infrastructure exists in the study area, equating to an average of *1 km per km2. Beyond the direct footprint, a further 4000–55,000 km2 (3–35% of the region) lies within edge effect zones.
Treatments: 
mining activity level, pastoral tenure.
Response: 
1) comprehensive cumulative impacts assessments must be further developed, applied and maintained, to guide development decisions and conservation or land-use plans.
Models: 
linear models, linear mixed models, generalised linear mixed models, AIC model selection.
Reviewer: 
Keren Raiter
Locations: 
Great Western Woodlands, Western Australia
Response variable : 
Spatial data on anthropogenic development footprint, key drivers, and hypothesised edge effect zones
Replication: 
24 sample area representing 8 'treatments'; ie. 3 replicates of each. However, each replicate was very large
Ecosystem: 
Temperate eucalypt woodlands, shrublands, mallee, banded ironstone formations and salt lakes.
Survey: 
Stratified random sample; 24 ~490 km2 sample areas across a 160,000 km2 region.
Full Reference: 
Raiter K. G., Prober S. M., Hobbs R. J. & Possingham H. P. (2017) Lines in the sand: quantifying the cumulative development footprint in the world’s largest remaining temperate woodland. Landscape Ecology 32, 1969-1986.